Selsport 2013/14

Monday, August 18, 2014

What You Eat Matters



At our goalkeeper camp at NC State this summer, our team nutritionist gave a 45-minute presentation on the benefits of a healthy diet for top-level athletes. While sports nutrition is a dynamic and evolving science, the basics have been known for some time: eat a balanced diet of proteins, carbs, and fats; try to limit sugar and processed foods; vegetables are your friend, etc.

I noticed that the more serious and dedicated goalkeepers in attendance - also the more talented ones - asked questions and took notes. Others treated the classroom session with barely concealed impatience. Among them, the common refrain was, "I know I should eat better, but does it really matter? I'm young."

Yes. Young or old, it matters.

Granted, you can get away with a lot more dietary indiscretions when you're young. But that doesn't mean you won't still pay a price for a poor diet. I have always maintained that goalkeepers' energy needs for a match are just as critical as outfield players, despite the fact that we obviously do far less running. In our case, we have to concentrate a great deal more, and concentration is impossible without energy. When I was playing ten p.m. games in New York in recent years, I sometimes found myself hungry in the second half. That's not good. In addition to the loss of energy and explosiveness that comes with low blood sugar, it's never good for your concentration to be thinking about food as the game rages around you. To solve this problem, I adjusted my schedule, ate a later dinner, often had a banana or bagel right before kickoff, and supplemented this with energy gels or chews at halftime. It did not guarantee better performances, but since there are many things out of our control in goalkeeping, it only makes sense to take care of things that we can control.

These days, as a fulltime coach, my energy levels are even more critical. My goalkeepers and players depend on me to be engaged, dynamic, and active in my coaching. In some goalkeeper sessions, I might serve hundreds of balls, demonstrate a new or complex drill, or act as an attacking player in a match-related training activity. I'm on my feet for hours at a time, in sweltering summer heat and humidity or bone-cracking winter cold. This takes good fuel, especially at my age.

Not really a performance food

Until last year, my diet was pretty poor. I was lean and in good shape because I don't have a huge appetite and I love the gym, but I was putting junk into my body every day, in the form of sodas, fried foods, and processed, sugary treats. I've always had a sweet tooth, and assumed it would be brutally hard to change my diet, but it really wasn't. Once I finally made the decision - more about that it a moment - it was simply a matter of replacing bad things with healthy things I liked. Luckily, it turned out I like spinach and kale, so I began replacing my pizza and burger lunches with grilled chicken salads. I switched from sodas to green tea sweetened with honey - still a little sugary, but exponentially better than soda - and replaced my late-night ice cream snacks with a Kashi Organic Cinnamon cereal. My pre-training, quick energy snack is an organic peanut butter, banana, and honey sandwich, and I have a chocolate milk right after, for recovery.

I made the decision to change my diet because, for the first time in my life, I noticed a slight increase in body fat. That is to say, I actually had body fat for the first time in my life. There wasn't much, but I didn't like it, and knew it indicated that my metabolism was, at long last, slowing down. 

I also have to think beyond athletics and toward the issue of general health. Even the best diet is no guarantee against cancer, heart disease, or other serious illnesses and conditions, but it's the single best thing you can do to tilt the odds in your favor. This, again, is something young athletes likely don't concern themselves with, and I understand that. But I have noticed several things that have definitely helped my athletic performance, and would apply to an athlete of any age.

You'll learn to love it - or at least tolerate it

The first is that I sleep much better since cutting out caffeine. I've gone from three or four sodas a day to, at most, one per week. I no longer bolt awake in the middle of the night, jittery and nervous, as I did regularly for years. Better, more restful sleep means I'm rising more refreshed and energetic, and also earlier. Not long ago, I needed at least eight hours of sleep, and would often go as long as ten. Now, seven feels just right.

I also have more energy now. This is not surprising, since I used to fill up on foods high in fat and simple sugars, both of which increase inflammation and interfere with the various processes involved in turning food into readily available energy. Related to both more energy and better sleep, I no longer feel like I need an afternoon nap. Even when my schedule allows for it, I rarely bother with what was once a necessity.

Finally, I no longer feel like a hypocrite. For years, I have preached the value of good nutrition to my players, then gone home and inhaled a pint of Ben & Jerry's. I always justified it by pointing to my general fitness levels and gym work, but I knew it was a poor excuse. A coach has a responsibility to set the example for his players. You either embrace that responsibility or shirk it. It feels good to finally be on the right side.

I stress that I am not a nutrition expert, and nobody should take specific instruction from me about what to eat. I simply have had the benefit of working with professional nutritionists and sports performance coaches. There are hundreds of great, reputable sources online, for anyone needing a little guidance. I will say only this: if you know you need to make a change, but think it will be too hard, just try it for one day. You'll be surprised how fast your taste buds adapt to a new diet. I get the same satisfaction from my grilled chicken salads now as I did from the double cheeseburger tray from CookOut a few months ago. And most experts agree that you should build 'cheat days' into your week, so you don't feel like you're punishing yourself.

If any of you have your own stories, recipes, or favorite foods, I'd love to hear about it in the comments, or on twitter. Thanks for reading!






Wednesday, June 25, 2014

Iker Casillas Is Not Finished....

....but he has a lot of work to do.



A hero to millions, and winner of the proverbial 'everything there is to win,' Iker Casillas saw his reputation take a double knock in recent months, first with a blunder in the Champions League Final, then with two entirely unconvincing displays at the World Cup. Spain slumped home, the defending champions out t the group stage, and Casillas came in for a large share of the blame. And it wasn't just these latest blunders that had people wondering. A pair of Real Madrid managers, Jose Mourinho and Carlo Ancelotti, have both preferred Diego Lopez in recent seasons. Clearly, 'San Iker' has been on the wane for some time. It's natural for athletes to decline with age. Nobody stays on top forever, and Casillas has been playing on the grandest stages since the late nineties.

But...he only just turned 33 last month. An age-induced decline really should not be happening now. What else could it be?

There's an old saying about cars: it's not the age, it's the mileage. Casillas has been performing at the top for a very, very long time now. He is approaching 500 appearances for Madrid, and ticked past a century and a half for Spain just prior to the World Cup. He has also, in that time, won a ridiculous array of trophies for both club and country. It would be fair to ask if his motivation may have waned, both to prove himself (which he will rightly feel he did long ago) or to win trophies. Goalkeeping is a very unforgiving position. Lose focus or drive even momentarily, and things will go bad in a hurry.



Casillas has always played a relatively low-risk style, preferring to stay on his line more often than not and rely on his outstanding reflexes and footwork. It's notable that some of his recent errors have come from him coming off his line ill-advisedly, as in the Champions League Final or for Robin van Persie's absurd flying header. There is a natural temptation, perhaps even for a decorated pro, to try to do a little more when you've been questioned, doubted, or dropped.

Iker Casillas doesn't need advice from me or anyone else, but he does need to get back to what he does best: playing the angles and making saves. The hard part will be finding the motivation for this career second act. For a player who enjoyed nothing but success and adulation, it surely can't be easy to be in this position now. There must be a temptation to shrug, point to his collection of medals, and insist there is no problem. But that's not going to get him back into the Madrid first team.

Edwin Van der Sar went through a similar mid/late career slump, which saw him bustled out of Juventus to Fulham, where he performed only adequately. To his credit, he recognized the massive opportunity presented him by Sir Alex Ferguson, and excelled during his time at Manchester United. His motivation would have been simple to find: a second chance at glory, success, and trophies.

Faryd Mondragon just played in the World Cup for Colombia at age 43. There is no physical reason Casillas can't go on for close to another decade; it's just a matter of his motivation.


Monday, February 24, 2014

The Ball Moves - Deal With It

Hakan Calhanoglu of Hamburg did this on Saturday:



How does a goalkeeper as talented and experienced as Roman Weidenfeller get beat from 40 yards - with the ball hitting not the extreme top corner, but a part of goal you'd expect a top-class keeper to reach?

Because the ball moved. A lot.

On first and even second viewing, I thought Weidenfeller was guilty of being flat-footed. And, technically, he is. But still images make it easy to understand why.

This picture (click to enlarge) shows that halfway to goal, the ball has traveled on a straight line, from Hakan's foot toward Weidenfeller in the middle of goal. It has no spin, so it isn't bending predictably to the keeper's right. It is flying straight at him.




What this picture doesn't show, but action replays do, is that the ball is also traveling in a severe arc. So not only does it look to Weidenfeller that the ball is coming straight down the middle of goal, it probably also looks to be going over the bar at this point.

Now look where the ball ends up, compared to its original line of flight.


A late swerve of a full six feet to the left, coupled with a vicious downward dip, leaves Weidenfeller helpless, despite his best efforts.

The lack of spin, of course, explains why the ball swerves and knuckles so deviously. If you'd like a scientific explanation of why this happens, you can read it here.

This free kick, effectively, is like a deflection. The keeper is set and tracking a shot going to one place (middle of the goal), only for it deviate to another late in its flight. It's irrelevant how far away Calhanoglu was when he struck the ball; all that matters is the time Weidenfeller had to react when it deviated from its original course.

So how to deal with these situations?

Footwork is key. If we're going to be at all critical of Weidenfeller here, we might look again at the first picture. There's a clue there:


We can see that he has got into a set position with his feet significantly wider than the width of his shoulders. When you split your feet this far apart, it consumes precious fractions of a second to get your center of gravity and weight to the outside of your foot, which is where you need it to be to dive. It also means he has to dive without the benefit of a couple of quick, small shuffle steps, limiting his range.

Ideally, in training we reinforce our set position and footwork hundreds of times. Still, we have these reactions in games. Splitting the feet wide is a natural response when we feel we need to brace ourselves for powerful shots struck right at us. The problem comes when it turns out they're not right at us.

I'll say again that because of ball movement, long-range shots demand much the same from keepers as deflections. Training for one, therefore, is useful for the other. Activities incorporating redirected shots, an unsighted keeper, or using balls designed to move unpredictably like the Responseball can all help.

We also must understand that you have to keep 'fighting' a moving ball throughout its flight. Dealing with a shot that moves like this demands multiple technical adjustments in our footwork and body shape, but just as importantly, it demands competitiveness. You have to be simply unwilling to be beaten, and do anything you can to prevent it. You have to also accept that these shots will always be much harder to deal with than your coaches, fans, and teammates may understand. It's just another challenging part of the special job we do.

Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Why Do Goalkeepers Stop Improving?

I recently took part in a three-day goalkeeper camp for boys and girls aged 14-17. The players worked hard, listened intently, asked questions, and in some cases, displayed real potential. The only concerning aspect of it is that several of the kids had been at the same camp back in July, and had not improved.

They were all much better than this guy, though

Now I wouldn't expect extraordinary improvement in just under six months, but 14-17 is a prime developmental period for goalkeepers. Some of the coaching points I made were very basic, and I'd made them multiple times back in July, but many of the goalkeepers still struggled. I'm not talked about advanced concepts; I mean basics like stance, posture, balance. So why weren't they getting it right?

Is it coaching? It could be. I'm not the world's best coach, but I'm not taking the blame for this one. I had these kids for a few sessions six months ago, and hadn't seen them since. The most likely answer is that in the intervening time, they simply hadn't had proper goalkeeper coaching, and slipped back into bad habits. Kids tend to focus just on stopping the ball, rather than worrying about technique. This is good in some ways, but not so good if the proper technique is not yet ingrained. There still aren't that many qualified goalkeeper coaches around. Most players have to make do without one.

But there are goalkeepers who DO get proper coaching, and still struggle with technique. Obviously, everybody has a talent ceiling. Some keepers are simply never going to have the athleticism or coordination to make a blinding top-had save or ping a side volley 60 yards. What's important, for serious young players at least, is maxing out whatever talent they do have. What I'm seeing is young goalkeepers who want to be excellent, and have decided that things like hand position and footwork 'don't matter.' What matters is spectacular saves. Fair enough; but my job as a coach is to make them understand that you need the stance, the footwork, the hand position to be right before you can consistently make those saves.

Coaching or not, goalkeepers who want to continue improving have to train. They have to play. This is the problem with organized soccer in the U.S, and increasingly in Britain. Everybody plays year-round, but only in an organized setting. That amounts to only a few hours a week. You've simply got to play more than that if you want to be truly good. You've got to play a frankly unreasonable amount, much more than the organized structure allows for, in parks and streets, in pickup games with your friends or neighbors of whoever you can convince to play. I built a pitch in my back yard when I was 12. We played on it so much that we churned away every last blade of grass, and soon nicknamed it the Dust Bowl.
It wasn't quite this bad

This is such a basic idea - train hard and you'll get better - that it seems silly to write a post about it. But it contradicts what has become the accepted model of improvement in the US: spend more and you'll get better. Parents send their kids to camps, pay for private training sessions, and buy them gloves and equipment. None of that is bad. But if the player isn't playing and training on his own or with their friends in between these financed sessions, he's not going to get much better, no matter who the coach is. 

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

Coaching Male and Female Goalkeepers - Differences & Similarities

Sorry for the long hiatus from the blog. I returned to full-time coaching this summer and the combination of preseason, travel, and a packed schedule has meant this update is long overdue.

I've coached both male and female goalkeepers, as have most goalkeeper coaches, and I suppose I always subscribed to the common conceptions about their differences and similarities. But the last two months have caused me to re-evaluate some of these points, and the simple reason is that the standard of women's goalkeeping, at least at the higher levels of the game, has improved tremendously in the last decade. Many of the commonly accepted orthodoxies about female goalkeepers are simply no longer valid.

For example, saves like this...


Nonetheless, women are still playing in a goal with dimensions designed originally for men. Women tend to be shorter and have a little less explosive jumping ability than men, and so what has always been true remains true: female goalkeepers need to play a little closer to their line than men, to reduce the likelihood of getting beat over the top.

In some respects, this is a similarity too, because I believe most male goalkeepers also play too far off their line, even at the highest levels. Petr Cech, for instance, never stops moving forward when the opposition is in shooting range, and will often be a full seven or eight yards off his line when a shot is struck from the top of the box. This narrows the angle, you say - but it also reduces his reaction time, and leaves him vulnerable to high shots looping in over his head. Mario Balotelli scored one such goal against Brazil in a friendly last summer, a well-struck shot that was nevertheless nowhere near the corner and would have been comfortably saved, had Julio Cesar been within a couple of paces from his line.


This should not happen.

Kicking and distribution has long been substandard in the women's game, but this too has changed. The female goalkeepers I coach at NC State can easily hit midfield with goal kicks, and so can most of the opposition keepers we've faced this season. I haven't yet seen a female keeper comfortable with side volleys, but have seen plenty of half volleys, which gives the same preferable lower trajectory.

Apart from stature and slightly less explosive jumping and diving ability, the technical area where female keepers are somewhat disadvantaged is, in my experience, core strength. Strength through the core, shoulders, and arms helps keepers hold shots and crosses when challenged and when falling to the ground. A strong core also helps with posture, set position, and injury prevention. Core work features heavily in the strength and conditioning program our players follow.

The physical is, of course, just one side of the story. I think in some respects, female keepers have an advantage when it comes to the mental side of the game. Men can be dominated by ego, making it difficult to accept mistakes and recognize the need to improve. This is a self-protective measure, sports psychologists will tell you, but the short-term good it may do is outweighed by the long-term harm.

I find the inverse more often to be true with female goalkeepers: they are quick to berate themselves, and the good ones channel that frustration into their training, desperate to improve. The danger, of course, is letting this short-term thinking damage their confidence and self-esteem. It's fine to acknowledge your weaknesses in order to improve; it's not so good if that turns into constant self-recrimination.

I don't think training sessions should be altered for female goalkeepers, but I think some coaching points and strength & conditioning routines benefit from being tailored to the specific demands of the women's game. There are some inherent differences between male and female goalkeepers, some positive and some negative, and there are some lingering stereotypes that are no longer accurate. As always, the best course is to evaluate goalkeepers individually and work to improve them, whatever their gender, height, or level of play.


Thursday, July 11, 2013

Book Review: 'Scientific Approaches to Goalkeeping in Football' by Andy Elleray



Go online and you can watch dozens, even hundreds, of goalkeeper training sessions, from clubs all over the world. This is a fantastic resource for coaches and keepers alike, but often you're seeing drills out of context. We don't know what has been happening in matches for these goalkeeper coaches to choose these specific drills. For a goalkeeper coach, merely copying these drills, no matter how advanced, may not be serving your goalkeepers well. 

In his book, Andy Elleray argues for a modern, scientific, holistic approach to training goalkeepers. He covers every conceivable aspect of the position, from psychology and biomechanics to Andy's professional specialty, video analysis, and a great deal more. There are also guest contributions from international goalkeeper coaches such as Daniel Pawlowski, Inaki Samaniego, and Glenn Robertson. And of course, Andy includes a large number of drills he has found effective for all the demands the modern game places on a goalkeeper.

What I like about the book is its emphasis on functional training to mimic and improve what the game demands of the keeper, using cold logic and quantifiable percentages - science, in other words. For example, Andy presents numbers from multiple sources showing that a goalkeeper's overwhelming involvement in a game involves distribution. Anywhere from 60% to 75% of a goalkeeper's 'interventions' involve collecting, clearing, and otherwise playing the ball with their feet. With this compelling evidence, we can see that as coaches, we need to make sure our keepers have the kind of training that makes them proficient and comfortable with the ball at their feet.

I was especially impressed with the wide variety of video analysis information Andy presents. Video is a tool I have only sparingly made use of in the past; this immediately changed upon reading Andy's book. Video is useful not only for the coach, of course, but for the player. Being able to film a session, or even just a few shots, on an iPad, and then immediately show them to the player, gives immediate, abiding feedback. You can tell a keeper a hundred times that their posture or set position is poor, but this is sometimes difficult for young goalkeepers to accept. If they see it on video one time, however, they'll be much more inclined to accept it both emotionally and intellectually.

There are too many powerful individual points for me to list even a fraction of them, but let me paraphrase one from Polish goalkeeper coach Daniel Pawlowski. He notes that we as coaches can set up cones or hurdles in a goalmouth and instruct our keepers to jump, slalom, and shuffle through them while making saves, and they may perform these tasks perfectly. But put them in the complex, dynamic environment of a match, and they will struggle. This is because a drill, no matter how involved, is essentially a simple situation, whereby the keeper 'follows the rules' set by the coach. In a game, he must react to an ever-changing environment, read situations, and make decisions. Typical goalkeeper drills do not prepare him for these tasks.

Want to know what does? Buy the book!

*Disclaimer: Andy's book was published by Bennion Kearny, the publisher of my book. That is not why I reviewed his book though; I read and agreed to review it before Bennion Kearny accepted my manuscript. This review has been greatly delayed because of the publication of my own book, and because I very nearly died of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (yes, that's a real thing) back in May! 

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

Book News


Regular readers might remember I posted a few times in 2012 about my book and its imminent publication. It took a little longer than I expected, but it will be coming out later this summer from Bennion Kearny. You can read about it here. It'll be available in both print and electronic editions. Please buy five copies in case you lose four. For now, here's a small excerpt.

 ***


The first twenty minutes felt like one extended car crash. We couldn’t clear our lines, couldn’t keep track of blistering, overlapping runs and mean, angled passes. In front of me, Ajit, Chopper, and Robert Heilmann were working miracles, lunging to tackle or block shots, but they kept coming in waves. We lost track of a player at the far post and he looped a header back across the face of goal. Great, I thought. It’s going to drop in over my head. The crowd noise swelled and crested like waves crashing on a beach. But my feet, powered by the nerves and adrenalin, chopped at the grass and got me back to my line. I leapt and turned it over the bar with my right hand, before tumbling into the net. The crowd applauded. We cleared the corner, but a few minutes later came another header from almost the same spot, this one nodded firmly to my right, the near post. Again the crowd thought they’d scored. I twisted high, got both hands behind it, and held it. I couldn’t help doing something silly then – I turned and showed the crowd the ball and laughed, then kicked it as far up the pitch as I could. The nerves, the crowd, the moment had turned me into one of the silly showman-type keepers I have always disdained. Perhaps I had been too quick to judge. Put me in front of a real crowd, and it turns out that I’m a ham.